According to German news agency DW, Vladimir Putin has approved a raft of economic sanctions against Turkey in retaliation for the downing of a Russian warplane by Turkish forces. It reports that the move came after Turkey’s Erdogan expressed regret over the incident.
One can picture Erdogan trying to call Putin, and Putin saying ‘let him sweat until he’s ready to apologize and admit error on the part of Turkey’. Erdogan will be trying to pull all sorts of levers to no avail. BUT Erdogan also needs to be careful not to escalate matters further.